Personality Dimensions® – Core, Developed, and Contextual Self

Core-Self-300x298
Image © Linda Berens

Every once in a while someone will ask if it’s possible to identify the colour preference of  children, or if their preference carries through to adulthood. We haven’t done specific research on this but it is accepted temperament theory that children are clear in their colour preference and that it develops as they mature – the Core Self becomes the Developed Self and Contextual Self (thanks to Linda Berens for these terrific identifiers). Well, I can’t speak for other people but I’d like to tell you a couple of stories from my own childhood that illustrate my first colour preference has certainly remained consistent.

 

I am the oldest child in my family. My Dad had a sliver grey ‘58 Pontiac sedan that he kept in top running condition. And I spent hours leaning over the side of the hood watching what he was doing and driving him crazy with questions about how everything worked. My kindergarten teacher even remarked to my parents at one time that she thought I could build the car myself. To this day I am still fascinated by how things work.

When I was 7 years old my Dad took my cousin and I to see the circus. That was a huge treat at the time (remember, that was over 55 years ago; circuses were a very big deal). I was fascinated by the whole thing –- the performances, the music, the animals – and all the special lighting effects and how the trapezes and draperies, etc., were raised and lowered. The next evening during dinner my Mother and Father were talking about the show and I was so surprised to hear my Dad say, “I don’t think Denise saw any of the show, she was so busy looking up, watching whatever was going on in the rafters.” I was stunned. Of course I had seen the show! But I’d also enjoyed figuring out how all the other things were working – eventually estimating, by the timing of the lights or the change in backdrop or draperies when something else was going to happen (it’s actually still quite clear in my mind). Fascinating stuff to a 7 year old, or, at least, a 7 year old Inquiring Green. My parents must have wondered what made me tick from time to time.

Now it’s your turn. I’d love to hear your stories about you as a child. Do you see yourself as representing your first colour preference/temperament as a child? I hope you will share some of  your “colourful” stories.

 

Onward and upward from the back office … Denise

Denise Hughes is the Director and owner of Denise HeadshotCareer/LifeSkills Resources Inc. and general editor of Personality Dimensions® materials and products. She just noticed the calendar and realized it is just past the 42nd anniversary of her introduction to career and type and temperament materials. Those experiences and the expertise she gained through her years with the Guidance Centre, University of Toronto, and now with CLSR, continue to shape the direction that both Career/LifeSkills Resources and Personality Dimensions® take.

Personality Dimensions® – Raising Awareness of Learning Styles

Personality Dimensions®  of Year 5/6 Students and Teachers – Raising Awareness of Learning Styles and the Implications for Educators

 

Introduction

“When someone is teaching us in our most comfortable style, we learn.” (McCarthy, 1980)

Personality Dimensions® uses the metaphor of colour to describe the four types of learners and how they need to be responded to (Tudor & Konyu, 2011). Based on the Learning Style descriptors of Bernice McCarthy, these types are:

  • Authentic Blue or Type 1 – Innovative Learners
  • Inquiring Green or Type 2 – Analytic Learners
  • Organised Gold or Type 3 – Common Sense Learners
  • Resourceful Orange or Type 4 – Dynamic Learners

In addition, Personality Dimensions® incorporates an understanding of Introversion and Extraversion preferences and the impact of these preferences, not only on the individual – by recognising how they are energised – but also on how others see and relate to them. According to Tudor and Konyu, “the Introversion/Extraversion function will impact…the participatory needs of the learner.”
Personality Dimensions®

Personality Dimensions® (PD) is a human relations model, presented in an interactive workshop format. Its strength lies in its self-discovery process and balanced learning style delivery. The Colour picture card depictions of the four temperaments are designed to help participants retain the information. They often begin to immediately apply this information to their lives.

 

Personality Dimensions® and Temperament Theory

Personality Dimensions® relies heavily on earlier theorists as well as independent studies. Theorists responsible for developing the concept of four temperaments are the ‘pre-psychological theorists: Hippocrates; Galen; Avencena; Kant, and the late 19th to mid-century theorists: Adickes; James; Spranger; Kretschmer; Jung and Fromm (Campbell, 2014).

Temperament Theory states that individuals are born with a predisposition to act and interact in certain ways to meet underlying needs. The term “Temperament Styles” was introduced by Keirsey in his seminal book Please Understand Me II (Keirsey, 1998). His publication contains in-depth descriptions of the four Temperaments: Intuitive Feeler (NF), Intuitive Thinker (NT), Sensing Judger (SJ) and Sensing Perceiver (SP).

Personality Dimensions® has added descriptors (as above) that reflect important aspects of each Temperament Style – Authentic Blue (NF), Inquiring Green (NT), Organized Gold (SJ) and Resourceful Orange (SP).

Personality Dimensions® states that we are all a “blend” of the four Temperaments and, although we have a preferred Temperament Style – Core self – other Colours are available to us in varying degrees – Developed self and Contextual self (Berens, 2010).

 

Background

Since 2004, the author has delivered Personality Dimensions® to the corporate sector, Not-for-profit organisations and universities for multiple applications including: developing leadership cultures which engage employees, team building, developing people skills, improving communication, building relationships; raising awareness of learning and teaching styles; and career development. In 2009, a simplified format of the self-assessment, PD for Youth, was developed by the publishers, at the behest of the author. For the first time, anywhere, PD for Youth was introduced into the level 4 school curriculum (grade 5/6) of Melbourne Metropolitan schools.

At any level of education, Personality Dimensions® can assist students to recognise their learning styles, and to discover their natural skills and talents. It validates students for who they are and can, thereby, build self-worth – the vital component of confidence. Personality Dimensions® can also foster an understanding of others – building empathy and respect. Thus, it lays the foundation for developing two pillars of emotional intelligence: self-awareness and awareness of others.

 

The Study

Over a period of six years, 398 students (in years 5 and 6) and 48 teachers, at seven schools located in the Yarra Ranges, Manningham and Whitehorse Councils, undertook the Personality Dimensions® assessment.

A total of ten workshop programs were facilitated, each with a minimum of 12 students and their respective teachers. Results for a teacher professional development day are included in this study. (Principals results were excluded unless they had direct teaching responsibilities).

School Year of workshop
Warrandyte Primary S 2010 & 2011
Yering, Chum Creek & Gruyere PS 2012
Wonga Park PS 2012, 2013, 2014, 2014, 2015
Anderson Creek PS 2012
Orchard Grove PS 2014

 

Results

First preference colours were collated and the percentages of teachers versus students were compared. The table and chart below show the comparisons.

Authentic Blue (Keirsey – NF) Type 1 – Innovative Learners Inquiring Green (Keirsey – NT) Type 2 – Analytic Learners Organised Gold (Keirsey – SJ) Type 3 – Common Sense Learners Resourceful Orange (Keirsey – SP) Type 4 – Dynamic Learners
Teachers

n=48

52.1%

6.3% 31.2% 10.4%

Students

n=398

29.4% 11.8% 12.6%

46.2%

 

Discussion

This data show an under-representation of both Resourceful Orange and Inquiring Green teachers in these Primary Schools. Authentic Blue and Organised Gold teachers comprise over 80 per cent of teachers. Authentic Blues and Organised Golds have a higher ratio of teachers to students with the same temperament. This is advantageous to their similarly traited students, because the way they teach is the way their temperaments learn.

Each temperament presents special challenges to their non-similarly traited teachers. However, as Resourceful Orange students constituted 46.2 per cent of students, and the ratio of Resourceful Orange teachers to students is grossly disproportionate, the discussion will focus on the ramifications on learning for this cohort, as an example. It is not to be construed that these students are the most difficult to teach or that they require the most adaptation by a non-Resourceful Orange teacher.

Resourceful Orange students are dynamic learners and as such need an active, changing environment. They learn through movement (Robinson & Aronica, 2009) and this is likely to be considered as hyperactivity, by teachers with temperaments whose learning needs are different. They are action and hands-on learners and prefer to be manipulating, operating or making something (Tudor & Konyu, 2011). Sitting at a desk is anathema to them.

A failure to understand the needs of Resourceful Orange students may result in a relatively high number of these students unable to thrive in the conventional school system. Indeed, the author has observed a preponderance of this temperament in disengaged adolescent and young adult clients, whose parents turned to her to provide career counselling for their children. (A study of “at-risk” students would be needed to confirm this observation).

So, how well are teachers of different temperaments able to provide a learning environment which engages Resourceful Orange students?
The Authentic Blue preference endows people with innate temperament traits which enable them to “read others very well and adjust their communication style to meet the situation…. They are intuitive and sensitive to the needs of others… They are empathic and very good at inspiring and motivating others to reach their full potential” (McKim, Detailed Descriptions of the Four Temperaments, 2013). Authentic Blue teachers can mirror others’ behaviour to build rapport, so they are adaptable and able to provide an empathic learning environment for all the other Temperaments.

These Authentic Blue traits were corroborated in a separate adult study conducted by the author (a NeuroPQ® assessor) with Dario Nardi and presented as a concurrent session at the Brisbane AusAPT conference (Riddle & Nardi, 2014). The study, which focused on Personality Dimensions and Emotional Intelligence (EQi), found that Authentic Blues scored high in the EQi cognitive skills areas of the neo-cortex (F7, T4 and T5 and O2) related to “Awareness of Others” and “Managing Others” including: social rapport (they are able to mirror others’ behaviour); intuitive listening; sensitivity to facial expressions and social feedback ( they notice how other people respond to them and adjust their behaviour to aid, conform or appease) and attention to body language (Nardi, 2014).

On the down-side, Authentic Blues are “very concerned about the impact of process” (McKim, Tying it all Together, 2013) and so they tend to give what may be perceived as lengthy explanations. Resourceful Orange students have no time for wordy details and prefer to jump in and get going.

The Organized Golds are caring and concerned with the well-being of others. They show this by being highly organised and efficient. They see rules, procedures and routine as necessary to make things easier for people to understand (McKim, Detailed Descriptions of the Four Temperaments, 2013). However, these very attributes are all key learning stressors for the Resourceful Orange Temperament (Tudor & Konyu, 2011). Organized Golds do things in a particular way and this involves prioritising, planning and having timeframes. Whereas, Resourceful Oranges are multi-taskers – often doing several things at once – and they like to do things in their own way and in their own time. Resourceful Orange students may feel constrained and view the Organized Golds’ approach as “authoritarian” and perceive their feedback as criticism – further learning stressors.

The results of the NeuroPQ study showed that Organized Golds’ scores were weak in the F7 and O2 regions of social rapport and attention to body language, so they may tend to be less intuitively aware of others [than Authentic Blues] so may not see the need to adapt their style to provide learning environments which suit the Resourceful Orange student.

Inquiring Greens are innately curious and focussed on the pursuit of knowledge. They need to “know” and are comfortable when they can explain how and why they “know” (McKim, Detailed Descriptions of the Four Temperaments, 2013). Semantics tend to make Resourceful Orange students phase-out – they prefer action to discussion and analysis (McKim, Tying it all Together, 2013). In addition, Inquiring Greens present information as abstract concepts – a further learning stressor for the Resourceful Orange student (Tudor & Konyu, 2011).

The results of the NeuroPQ study showed that Inquiring Greens were weak in the F7 and O2 regions of social rapport and attention to body language, so they, like Organized Golds, may not instinctively provide learning environments which suit the Resourceful Orange student.

 

Outcomes of Introduction of Personality Dimensions® into Primary School Curriculum.

In this study, teachers observed the environments which different temperaments valued and which allowed them to work at their best. Teachers reported that seeing their students from a new perspective helped them to better understand their needs, skills and challenges. This enabled them to construct strategies to connect students to their style of learning. They were now able to better plan and develop their lessons so they could appeal to, and engage, each of the temperaments.

Furthermore, teachers commented that “it was great for students to understand their Colours and [validate] how they learn. The students were “now able to use this language of Colour to their advantage” and apply it to achieving their full potential. “This has given them transferable skills and knowledge for the future.”

One Principal reported that “Personality Dimensions® will definitely stick in my head better than others I have done”. A teacher relayed that “None of the other programs I have done were as useful in the classroom as this one.”

 

Conclusions and Implications

There is a high ratio of Authentic Blue and Organized Gold teachers to their same temperament students, which is advantageous for these students.

The innate traits of Authentic Blue endow them with the ability to adapt to the learning needs of disparate Temperaments. Organized Golds and Inquiring Greens do not have these innate traits.

It is noted that Inquiring Green teachers are largely under-represented in the Primary schools in this study. The effect on Inquiring Green students has not been discussed in this article.

There is a pronounced disparity in the ratio of Resourceful Orange teachers to students of the same Temperament. The implications on learning, for this Temperament, have been discussed, as an example.

Primary school provides the foundation for learning. It is essential that educators have an understanding of the learning needs of the diverse temperaments in order to provide learning environments and strategies that maximise education. An understanding of Introversion and Extraversion preferences is also necessary to meet the participatory needs of the learner. Personality Dimensions® provides a user-friendly approach to help achieve these educational goals.

Awareness is the key. Not all temperaments are able to innately “read” the learning styles of their non-similarly traited students. The author recommends the introduction of Personality Dimensions® into teacher education and professional development. This will enable teachers to expand their toolkit of strategies to maximise the learning experience of all temperaments. Combined PD workshops for teachers and their students can assist teachers to recognise the behaviours of the disparate temperaments and to adjust their communication and teaching styles, accordingly.

 

References

Berens, L. (2010). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the 4 Temperaments. Huntington Beach, CA: Telos Publications.

Campbell, S. (2014). History of Personality Dimensions. Retrieved from Personality Dimensions CLSR Canada: http://www.personalitydimensions.com/#!history/ckqh

Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.

McCarthy, B. (1980). The 4Mat System: Teaching to Learning Styles with Right/Left Mode Techniques. Barrington, Illinois: Excel Inc. Retrieved from ISBN0-9608992-0-0

McKim, L. (2013). Detailed Descriptions of the Four Temperaments. Personality Dimensions [Facilitator] Manual Ed 2. Concord, Ontario, Canada: Career/Lifeskills Resources Inc.

McKim, L. (2013). Tying it all Together. Personality Dimensions – A Guide for Facilitators Ed 2. Concord, Ontario, Canada: Career/Lifeskills Resources Inc.

Nardi, D. (2014). Cognitive Skills Profile. Neuroscience of Personality: Certification Workshop. Los Angeles, California, USA: Radiance House.

Riddle, C., & Nardi, D. (2014). Leadership Qualities (EQi) for Career Development. AusAPT 11th Bienniel Conference. Brisbane.

Robinson, K., & Aronica, L. (2009). The Element. New York: Viking.

Tudor, M., & Konyu, L. (2011). Personality Dimensions: A Guide for Facilitators and Teachers. Concord, Ontario, Canada: Career/Lifeskills Resurces Inc.

 

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to acknowledge the invaluable contribution of Catherine Gerhardt, Level I Personality Dimensions® facilitator. Cathy was trained and accredited by the author. Her excellent organisation and presentation of the workshops has been a pivotal aspect of this study. Cathy’s diligent collection and reporting of temperament preference statistics has enabled the author to produce this study. http://www.classroomconnections.com.au
The author is grateful for the comprehensive proof-reading and suggestions by Denise Hughes and Julia Bartrim, which have enriched this article.

 

Author

Cecile Riddle MHealthSc (HRM) LaTrobe; Fellow, Career Development Association of Australia; Member, Australian Association of Personality Type

 

About the Author

cecileCecile Riddle is a Coach, Mentor and Learning Facilitator who specialises in developing emotionally intelligent leaders. She is an International Master Trainer of Personality Dimensions® and trains assessors to be internationally certified as Personality Dimensions® Level I facilitators.
For more information: http://www.primeperformance.com.au

 

This article was first published in the Australian Association of Personality Type Magazine, Summer Ed. 2016

Personality Dimensions In Action with Wayne Jones

In this guest blog post by Wayne Jones, co-author of Great Parenting Skills for Navigating Your Kid’s Personality, shares with us his reflections on presenting at the APTi conference with wife, and co-author Kate Jones.  The APTi conference held every two years attracts Personality Type professionals from around the world, and features well-known and respected speakers from the field.

Reflections: APTi Conference in Miami

Kate and I had the honour of being invited to the Association for Psychological Type International (APTi) Biennial Conference in Miami Florida, to speak about our recently published book, Great Parenting Skills for Navigating Your Kid’s Personality. The conference theme was “Growing Type Expertise”, and there certainly was a wide range of workshop options to address that topic. For me, it was initially a bit overwhelming – you see, Kate is trained in the 16 Personality Types and knows it and Personality Dimensions®, but I am a relative newcomer to this field and certainly don’t profess to know much about the world of the 16 Types. That said, we made up our minds to get the most out of this event and enjoy the heat and sunshine of Miami as well.

Our journey began with a delayed flight, a very slow airport shuttle and lost luggage, but we made it just in time to register and attend a keynote by Linda Berens, a reviewer of our book. She brought us some of the latest research and set the tone for what was to follow. A highlight of the conference took place the same evening when Kate and I attended a reception and had a wonderful chat with Kathy Myers and Linda Berens. Kathy (Katherine) is the daughter-in-law of MBTI co-creator Isabel Myers and her leadership led to the creation of APTi. Linda is a past president of APTi and a leading practitioner and author. That inspiration propelled us through the next four days of workshops and seminars.

From my perspective, this conference covered everything you ever wanted to know (and then some!) about the 16 Types. There was a great variety of content and approach; the learning curve for me was steep but interesting. By the time we were delivering our workshop, I was even beginning to “speak type” to fellow delegates. We found everyone to be positive and supportive, always ready to share ideas and talk about furthering practice. The organization of the conference was superb – conference chair Fay Roseman and executive director Stephanie Polakiewicz ensured that sessions were on time and speakers were accommodated well.

The conference facility was the beautiful Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Miami. When not attending sessions, we were in the pool or strolling beside the Miami River. On our fourth day, we presented our workshop, highlighting how our book evolved from Kate’s Personality Dimensions®-based workshops for parents. It was a challenge presenting to an audience of Personality Type practitioners; however, we found them to be keen to learn and responsive to our ideas. The workshop was well attended and we met many fascinating participants from the U.S., England and Australia.

As we bid farewell on the final day, we found ourselves reflecting on how much we had learned, how pleased we were to participate as speakers and how we might incorporate this new-found knowledge into future directions for our practice. While we focus on temperament, it was refreshing to see how open APTi was to our work and we will be considering returning to the next conference in two years.

Wayne JonesWayne Jones is an experienced educator, having taught students from Kindergarten through secondary school as well as adult education. Wayne has been a principal in the Peel District School Board as well as for a faculty advisor for Nipissing University. He currently does contract position work for the Peel DSB.

Wayne has excellent oral and written communication skills, incorporating a dry sense of humour in his presentation style. As an Educational Consultant and Personality Dimensions® Level 1 facilitator, as well as co-author of Great Parenting Skills for Navigating Your Kid’s Personality, Wayne Jones draws on over 30 years educational practice and numerous life experiences to enrich his writing and presentations.  http://skills4people.com/

Personality Dimensions at APTi

kate wayne linda katherine
Front: Linda Berens, Katherine Myers, Kate Jones Back: Wayne Jones

Authors of Great Parenting Skills for Navigating Your Kids Personality, Kate and Wayne Jones are presenting at this year’s APTi (Association for Psychological Type International) conference in Miami, Florida.  While there, Kate and Wayne had the opportunity to meet with Lynda Berens and Katherine Myers.

Lynda Berens, PhD. is an author, researcher, and trainer who has greatly contributed to the world of Temperament theory.  Her book Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to Temperament along with her other work, played a large role in the development of Personality Dimensions®.

Katherine Myers is the daughter-in-law of MBTI co-creator Isabel Myers.  Mother daughter team Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers created the first assessment based on Carl Jung’s work on Personality Types; and created the popular four letter type code.  While Type and Temperament are historically different streams, (16 types vs 4 temperaments), Personality Dimensions® incorporates Introversion and Extraversion with Temperament theory.

Kate and Wayne will be presenting on Saturday, July 25th at 1:45pm.  – This interactive seminar is based on the authors’ book, Great Parenting Skills for Navigating Your Kid’s Personality, which is a product of their popular parenting workshops. Today’s presentation will help increase type expertise for parents and those working with parents and/or kids. Participants will experience how the Personality Dimensions® model helps parents quickly identify their own temperaments and those of their offspring to understand and then relate to them in a positive strengths-based manner.

If you can’t make it to Miami, Kate and Wayne can deliver this workshop at your location.  They can be reached through their website http://skills4people.com/